Fluidized bed reactors parr fluidized bed reactors are used extensively in the chemical process industries. In the present work a modelling approach is presented which is able to handle the most important aspects of industrial fluidized bed reactors. Fluidizedbed electrochemical reactors fbers are attractive for their capacity and operability in many fields of electrochemical technology, especially in the treatment of dilute or complicated solutions. The closedloop process eliminates the creation of waste brine solutions that are normally produced when regenerating ionexchange media. Scalingup of fluidizedbed electrochemical reactors. Water treatment by adsorption and electrochemical regeneration development of a liquidlift reactor a thesis submitted to the university of manchester for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the faculty of engineering and physical sciences dun liu school of chemical engineering and analytical science.
In recent years, the fluidized bed applications are extended for electrochemical processes such as electro oxidation, cathodic reduction and metal recovery from dilute solution. Use of fluidizedbed electrode reactors for alane production. A comparative analysis of electrochemical cells containing fluidizedbed electrodes fbes is made. Fixed and fluidized beds university of california, berkeley. Mass transfer enhancement in a threephase fluidized bed. Table i represents the variety of studies done on some pollutant degradation on fluidized bed reactor. Kumar et al studies on the fluidized bed electrode.
Fluidized bed reactor free download as powerpoint presentation. The understanding of the flow regimes in fluidized bed reactors is the key for successful design and scaleup of these reactors. The chemical engineering approach to some electrochemical. A fluidized bed reactor was designed and constructed for practical demonstration of the fluidization of solid particles at different fluid flow rates. A fluidized bed is a sand bed through which air is blown vertically from bottom to top at a speed that keeps the individual sand particles floating. Methods and apparatus for the production of high purity silicon including a fluidized bed reactor with one or more protective layers deposited on an inside surface of the fluidized bed reactor. Optimum mixing in the bed is achieved within specific velocity limits that are function of the particle size of bed material 22. A novel 2 stage process for the separation and recovery of the cu, fe and s from chalcopyrite cufes,2 was investigated. The electrochemical dissolution of copper sulfides using. Reactants are pumped into the reactor through a distributor continuously, causing the bed to become fluidized. The substrate cellulose was hydrolyzed quantitatively with immobilized cellulase. Basic design of a fluidized bed reactor for wastewater. Pdf scalingup of fluidizedbed electrochemical reactors. Our expertise helps our clients develop, optimize, and troubleshoot their new and existing processes in the areas of coal, refinery.
The animation below shows the operation of a movingbed reactor. List advantages and disadvantages of fluidized beds. The reactor in consideration is a fluidized bed electrochemical reactor, with rectangular geometry and. When electrochemical reactors operate at high cell potential, the anodic. Flow through a bed of particles response to superficial flow fluid does not impart enough drag to overcome. Fluidized bed reactor chemical processes chemical reactor. Moving bed reactors are catalytic reactors in which the catalyst moves through the reactor along with the reactants. Mass transfer enhancement in a threephase fluidized bed electrochemical reactor. As the chemical and fuel industries continue to improve efficiency for higher throughput processes, fluidized bed reactors have become a direct means for process intensification and new applications. Basic design of a fluidized bed reactor for wastewater treatment. Mass transfer in fluidised bed electrochemical reactors sciencedirect. Pdf a comparative analysis of electrochemical cells containing fluidizedbed electrodes fbes is made. A particular focus is to describe the relationship between catalyst attrition, solids recovery in the reactor system and chemical performance of the fluidized bed reactor.
Fluidized bed reactors have been used and design for different physical and chemical process for example, catalytic cracking, fluid transportation. This research investigated the use of an electrochemical system for regenerating ionexchange media and for promoting the crystallization of hardness minerals in a fluidized bed crystallization reactor fbcr. Electrochemical engineering techniques use reactors called electrochemical reactors for the process of cleaning and recovery of heavy metals from industrial. This is usually achieved by the introduction of pressurized fluid through the particulate medium. These pages were constructed to convey the importance of fluidized bed reactors fbrs in todays petroleum and chemical process industries. A fluidizedbed reactor was designed and constructed for practical demonstration of the fluidization of solid particles at different fluid flow rates. The final reaction product was identified as glucose.
Bringing together industrial and academic expertise in fluidized and fixed bed systems. A fluidized bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance usually present in a holding vessel is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solidfluid mixture to behave as a fluid. Cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose by the cellulase. Before the reactor is started the catalyst pellets lie on a grate at the bottom of the reactor. The possibility of using fluidized bed electrodes for simplifying engineering problems encountered in scaling up electrochemical processes from a. Werther j, hartge eu 2004 modeling of industrial fluidizedbed reactors. The first chapter examines the basic physics of gassolid fluidization. A fluidized bed reactor fbr is a type of reactor device that can be used to carry out a variety of multiphase chemical reactions. Swri designs, constructs, and operates fluidized bed processes. A comparative analysis of electrochemical cells containing fluidized bed electrodes fbes is made. Design of fluidized bed electrochemical reactor for the. We report in this work the results of the first steady state experiments conducted in a new pilot plant designed to test the concept under realistic reactor conditions.
Us8168123b2 fluidized bed reactor for production of high. Live simple, live free tinyhouse prepper recommended for you. In fluidization process, hot air is introduced at high. One of the most studied systems, at moment, is the fluidized bed electrochemical reactor having a rectangular base. Fluidization occurs when small solid particles are suspended in an upwardflowing stream of fluid, as shown in figure r12. The itc group fixed and fluidized bed research and. The aerobic fluidized bed reactor was found to be more effective in treating the textile dyeing wastewater for a maximum cod removal of 83. They consist of a bed of immobilised enzyme which is fluidised by the rapid upwards flow of the substrate stream alone or in combination with a gas or secondary liquid stream, either of which may be inert or contain material relevant to the reaction. Iran mirzaei, ahmad iran polymer and petrochemical institute, faculty of polymerization engineering, tehran, i.
The reactor bed consists of highly conductive electrical particles, fluidized by an electrolytic flux containing metallic ions. In stage 1, cufes,2 particles are reduced in the catholyte chamber of a fluidized bed electrochemical reactor fber. The fluidized bed reactor page university of washington. This results in the medium then having many properties and. Control of a fluidized bed polyethylene reactor vahidi, omid. Specially fluidized bed electrodo fbe, has been used for the extraction of metals from diluted solutions because it has a large specific electrode area for the electrochemical reaction and high mass transfer rates. Continuous caocaoh2 fluidized bed reactor for energy. The equipment works on a principle of fluidization of the feed materials. Immobilized cellulase was used in a fluidized bed reactor where the pressure drop of the fluidized bed reactor was low and constant.
Fluidized bed electrodes first attracted attention in the sixties,4 initially for. Unfortunately, they have some disadvantages, caused by the hydrodynamics of the movement of fluidizedbed particles. In this type of reactor, a fluid gas or liquid is passed through a solid granular material usually a catalyst possibly shaped as tiny spheres at high enough velocities to suspend the solid and cause it to behave as though it were a fluid. Fluidized bed electrodesfundamental measurements and. Electrochemical antiscaling treatment using a fluidized bed. The industrial thermochemical conversion itc group provides expertise in thermochemical conversion processes that involve multiphase particulate flows and fluidized bed systems. Apart from this, this investigation has an advantage of assisting in engineering project design and scaleup. The pilot has a fluidized bed reactor with an internal diameter of 0. Werther j, hartge eu 2004 a population balance model of the particle inventory in a fluidizedbed reactorregenerator system. This is also applicable to electrochemical reactors for water treatment. Fundamentals of fluidizedbed chemical processes 1st edition. Likewise, the successful application of fluidized bed reactors to highly exothermic oxidation processes, such as those cited above for the chemical process industries, is due to the ability of the reactor to control the exothermic reactions which are taking place.
This work aim for a better fluidized bed electrochemical reactor performance using. Diy brick rocket stove cooking without power duration. Arrangement of reactor must reflect needs of desired application. These reactors generally behave in a manner intermediate between cstrs and pbrs. Electrolytic reactor design, selection, and scaleup. Fluidized bed electrochemical reactor has been demonstrated for organic pollutant degradation by zhou and wu 2004. The possibility of using fluidized bed electrodes for simplifying engineering problems encountered in scaling up electrochemical processes from a laboratory to a plant scale has been the subject. The effects of pore constriction on the behavior of electrochemical. Further, the electrochemical reactor was integrated in a fluidized bed for organic compound adsorption.
Unfortunately, they have some disadvantages, caused by the hydrodynamics of the movement of fluidized bed particles. Reactants green and catalyst white enter the top of the reactor and move through the vessel. Moving bed visual encyclopedia of chemical engineering. Application of orthogonal collocation method to fluidised. The reactor features integrated heat recovery, a stable fluidization and combustion process, and integrated flue gas cleaning. The influence of the arrangement of the working space on the manner of particle movement and. Threedimensional electrodes, as fixed bed or fluidized bed, where electrochemical reactions are generated, are already used for a wide range of applications like metals removal and water treatments. But, to our knowledge no electrochemical apparatus using a fluidized bed was already used as antiscaling device. Electrochemical reactors are used as monopolar or bipolar designs fig. Evaluation of fluidized bed reactor in treating dyeing. The bed is made of highly conducting copper particles whose specific surface area is a. The modeled system schematized in figure 1, is a fluidized electrochemical bed reactor with a rectangular geometry and a perpendicular configuration, whose thickness, width, and height are represented by x, y, and z, respectively. The protective layer may be resistant to corrosion by fluidizing gases and siliconbearing gases. Fluidized bed dryer also called fluid bed dryer is a kind of equipment used extensively in the pharmaceutical industries to reduce moisture content of pharmaceutical powder and granules.
Fundamentals of fluidizedbed chemical processes presents a survey of the design, operation, and chemical processes of fluidizedbed reactors. Us4206020a electrochemical process using a fluidized. Electrochemical reactors 2 arrangement of reactor must reflect needs of desired application reactor shape and material basic parts of electrochem. Consequently, a detailed design of a fluidized bed reactor that would allow flexible operation at high temperature and high pressure at several gas velocities will be conducted in order to serve for the future development of new hydrodynamic models. The distinguishing feature of a fluidized bed reactor is that the bed of solid particles or catalyst is supported by an up flow of gas. Fluidised bed reactors london south bank university.